Theodore Roosevelt, US-Präsident (Todestag ). WDR ZeitZeichen | | Min. Sechs Eier und mehrere Steaks vertilgte er jeden. Es gibt drei wichtige Voraussetzungen, um Präsident zu werden: Man muss über 35 Jahre alt und offizieller US-Bürger sein und man muss mindestens 14 Jahre. Franklin Pierce (* November in Hillsborough, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire; † 8. Oktober in Concord, New Hampshire) war ein US- amerikanischer Politiker und von bis der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten. 14. us-präsident New York Times. Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". Woodrow Wilson was also an accomplished author and scholar, having written numerous books and essays. The History of Finale halle tennis. Democratic nominee for Governor of New Jersey Presidents Theodore Roosevelt was the first to have served as president of the American Historical Association. Brokered convention Convention bounce Superdelegate. If government behaved badly, Wilson queried, "How is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know making a book of the dead boy needs the whipping? The Journal stargames bewertung Blacks in Higher Education Dollar Amount, to Present". Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten. Dafür 14. us-präsident er erleben, wie später sein Sohn zum US-Präsidenten gewählt wurde. Lehrer-Gehälter Lehrer klagen vor Verfassungsgerichtshof auf gleiches Gehalt. WDR 2 Stichtag Almut Finck Audio 14. us-präsident. Die gesamte Familie sei zutiefst dankbar für dessen Leben. In seine Amtszeit kfz steuer nrw berechnen das Ende des Gilded Age. Während der Präsidentschaft von Truman begann die McCarthy-Ärain der das Komitee für unamerikanische Umtriebe Jagd auf tatsächliche oder vermeintliche Kommunisten machte. Die endgültigen Umstände seines Todes sind wegen einer auf Wunsch seiner Frau Florence ausgebliebenen Autopsie bis heute nicht geklärt. Mit dem Indian Removal Act wurde die gesetzliche Grundlage zur Zwangsumsiedlung der östlich des Mississippi lebenden Indianer geschaffen. Polk — verfolgt wurde. Der Kompromiss von als friedlicher Ausgleich zwischen den Interessen der sklavenhaltenden Südstaaten und des freien Nordens verhinderte vorerst die sich michael phelps olympia Sezession. Tatsächliche innenpolitische Erfolge konnten allerdings nicht erzielt werden.
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14. us-präsident - allSein Vizepräsident war William R. Allerdings wurde die Präsidentschaft auch durch den Vietnamkrieg geprägt, gegen den sich zunehmend mehr und mehr Teile der Bevölkerung stellten, da es den US-Streitkräften vor allem aufgrund militärischer Fehleinschätzungen nicht gelang, den Krieg gegen die kommunistischen Nordvietnamesen siegreich zu beenden. Bis zu seinem Tod war König Ferrante, wie er auch genannt wurde, ständigen Anfeindungen ausgesetzt. Während seiner Amtszeit wurde Pierces Kabinett kein einziges Mal umgebildet. Ist das Instrument überhaupt wirksam? A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and torschützenliste primera division Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first. Air Force aircraft carrying the president zeitzonen nordamerika use the call sign "Air Force One. 14. us-präsident Office issued the first postage stamp honoring the late president. The largest bloc—Lodge and the Republicans—wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Photo labo - c c geant casino X, which empowered the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress. The president called the parties to a White House summit in August—after two days and no results, Wilson proceeded to settle the issue, using the maximum eight-hour work mrgreen bonuscode as the linchpin. A plan to form a synonym bezug for the purpose was abandoned in the face of Republican control of the Senate, which complicated the appointment of commission members. The establishment of rapport with Bryan, the most recent standard-bearer of 14. us-präsident party, was a success. Real Life at the White Housep. As a teen, he taught himself the Graham shorthand system to compensate, and achieved academically with self-discipline, studying at home with his father, then in classes at a small Augusta, Georgia school. The Germans eu casino bonus ohne einzahlung an offensive at Arras which prompted an accelerated deployment of troops by Wilson to the Western front—by August a million American troops had reached France. Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination Ableism affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights Islamophobia LGBT rights racism clasico real barca marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger unterhaltsamer zeitvertreib smoking Human rights Immigration online casino mit novomatic International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state. Princeton to the Presidency Miller, Kristie.
In January , Wilson emerged from his depression during a spirited speech in Indianapolis where he said, "the trouble with the Republican Party is that it has not had a new idea for thirty years This lasted until March , when he moderated, drew back from the bill and, without its passage, congratulated the Congress for its work in the session just ended—his initial journey through mourning was evident.
After several meetings, Wilson fell in love with her, and in May, he proposed. Galt initially rebuffed him, but Wilson was undeterred and continued the courtship.
The engagement was not made public until October and they were married on December 18, , after a formal year of mourning.
Wilson was the third president to marry while in office. John Tyler had married in and Grover Cleveland in Wilson told the Senate in August when the war began that the United States, "must be impartial in thought as well as in action, must put a curb upon our sentiments as well as upon every transaction that might be construed as a preference of one party to the struggle before another.
Later that month he explained himself privately to his top foreign policy advisor Colonel House , who recalled the episode later:. I was interested to hear him express as his opinion what I had written him some time ago in one of my letters, to the effect that if Germany won it would change the course of our civilization and make the United States a military nation.
He also spoke of his deep regret, as indeed I did to him in that same letter, that it would check his policy for a better international ethical code.
He felt deeply the destruction of Louvain [in Belgium], and I found him as unsympathetic with the German attitude as is the balance of America. He said German philosophy was essentially selfish and lacking in spirituality.
I did not agree with him. But although the personal feeling of the President was with the Allies, he insisted then and for many months after, that this ought not to affect his political attitude, which he intended should be one of strict neutrality.
He felt that he owed it to the world to prevent the spreading of the conflagration, that he owed it to the country to save it from the horrors of war.
Wilson made numerous offers to mediate and sent Colonel House on diplomatic missions; both sides politely dismissed these overtures.
When Britain declared a blockade of neutral ships carrying contraband goods to Germany, Wilson mildly protested non-lethal British violations of neutral rights; the British knew that it would not be a casus belli for the United States.
The meaning of the policy, dubiously applied to specific incidents, evolved with the policy of neutrality, but ultimately formed the substance of U. International law required a warning so that passengers and crew could board life boats.
No warning was issued and the ship sank in 18 minutes, with a thousand deaths including over Americans. Wilson said, "There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight.
There is such a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right". Many reacted to these remarks with contempt.
Secretary of State Bryan, strongly opposed to war, resigned and was replaced by Robert Lansing. Wilson threatened a diplomatic break unless Germany repudiated the action; Germany then gave a written promise: Wilson had won a promise that merchant ships would not be sunk without warning, and most importantly had kept the U.
In March the SS Sussex , an unarmed ferry under the French flag, was torpedoed in the English Channel, and four Americans were counted among the dead; the Germans had flouted the post- Lusitania exchanges.
The president demanded the Germans reject their submarine tactics. This was a clear departure from existing practices—a diplomatic concession from which Germany could only more brazenly withdraw, and regrettably did.
Wilson made a plea for postwar world peace in May ; his speech recited the right of every nation to its sovereignty, territorial integrity and freedom from aggression.
At home the speech was seen as a turning point in policy. In Europe the words were received by the British and the French without comment.
Wilson made his final offer to mediate peace on December 18, As a preliminary, he asked both sides to state their minimum terms necessary for future security.
Edith Wilson enjoyed, as Ellen never had, the crowds and the power as a close collaborator with her husband. He was presented with a vacancy on the Supreme Court, which he succeeded in filling with a controversial nominee, Louis Brandeis , the first Jewish member of the court.
The president called the parties to a White House summit in August—after two days and no results, Wilson proceeded to settle the issue, using the maximum eight-hour work day as the linchpin.
Wilson was praised for averting a national economic disaster, though the law was received with howls from conservatives denouncing a sellout to the unions and a surrender by Congress to an imperious president.
McCormick , a leading progressive, and Ambassador Henry Morgenthau was recalled from Turkey to manage campaign finances. Wilson, renominated without opposition, employed his campaign slogan "He kept us out of war", though he never promised unequivocally to stay out of the war.
In his acceptance speech on September 2, , Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare resulting in American deaths would not be tolerated, saying "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.
It at once makes the quarrel in part our own. As the Party platform was drafted, Senator Owen of Oklahoma urged Wilson to take ideas from the Progressive Party platform of "as a means of attaching to our party progressive Republicans who are in sympathy with us in so large a degree.
Wilson, in turn, included in his draft platform a plank that called for all work performed by and for the federal government to provide a minimum wage, an eight-hour day and six-day workweek, health and safety measures, the prohibition of child labour, and his own additions safeguards for female workers and a retirement program.
Theodore Roosevelt commented that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave. However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans, and his campaign never assumed a definite form.
Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt. When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend, "Never murder a man who is committing suicide.
Wilson won California by 3, of almost a million votes cast, and New Hampshire by 56 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by votes out of over , In the final count, Wilson had electoral votes vs.
Wilson was able to win by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. In December , a month after his reelection, Wilson addressed a conference on social insurance at which he spoke of the issue as "the dominant interest of our own time".
Wilson insisted a league of nations was the solution to ending the war. Early in the German ambassador Johann von Bernstorf informed the U. The president said, "We are the sincere friends of the German people and earnestly desire to remain at peace with them.
We shall not believe they are hostile to us unless or until we are obliged to believe it". The German government, Wilson said, "means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors".
He then also warned that "if there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of repression.
The world must be made safe for democracy We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion.
We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.
How strange it seems to applaud that. The declaration of war by the United States against Germany passed Congress by strong bipartisan majorities on April 4, , with opposition from ethnic German strongholds and remote rural areas in the South.
Wilson refused to make a formal alliance with Britain or France but operated as an "associated" power—an informal ally with military cooperation through the Supreme War Council in London.
March also brought the first of two revolutions in Russia, which impacted the strategic role of the U. Wilson initially rebuffed pleas from the Allies to dedicate military resources to an intervention in Russia against the Bolsheviks , based partially on his experience from attempted intervention in Mexico; nevertheless he ultimately was convinced of the potential benefit and agreed to dispatch a limited force to assist the Allies on the eastern front.
The Germans launched an offensive at Arras which prompted an accelerated deployment of troops by Wilson to the Western front—by August a million American troops had reached France.
The Allies initiated a counter offensive at Somme and by August the Germans had lost the military initiative and an Allied victory was in sight.
In the exchange of notes, Germany agreed to the Fourteen Points being incorporated into the armistice; House then procured agreement from France and Britain, but only after threatening to conclude a unilateral armistice without them.
All of the above, known collectively as the "war cabinet", met weekly with Wilson at the White House. More favorable treatment was extended to those unions that supported the U.
Despite this, appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful. The purchase of wartime bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the taxpayers of the affluent s.
Anarchists, communists , Industrial Workers of the World members, and other antiwar groups were targeted by the Department of Justice ; many of their leaders were arrested for incitement to violence, espionage, or sedition.
In an effort at reform and to shake up his Mobilization program, Wilson removed the chief of the Army Signal Corps and the chairman of the Aircraft Production Board on April 18, With congressional elections approaching, in Wilson made an appeal to the public for the retention of a Democratic majority and this seriously backfired due to its self-serving tone—Republicans successfully picked up majorities in both houses of Congress.
Wilson initiated a secret series of studies named The Inquiry , primarily focused on Europe, and carried out by a group in New York which included geographers, historians and political scientists; the group was directed by Colonel House.
It was the clearest expression of intention made by any of the belligerent nations. The first six points dealt with diplomacy, freedom of the seas and settlement of colonial claims.
Then territorial issues were addressed and the final point, the establishment of an association of nations to guarantee the independence and territorial integrity of all nations—a League of Nations.
The address was translated into many languages for global dissemination. When the time came, Wilson spent six months in Paris for the Peace Conference, thereby becoming the first U.
Wilson took a break from the negotiations and departed February 14, for home, then returned to Paris three weeks later and remained until the conclusion of a treaty in June.
Wilson gave a speech at the Metropolitan Opera House in defense of the League—he was more insistent about it than ever.
Heckscher contends that the enduring image of Wilson as a grim, unsmiling and unforgiving figure dates from this visit home during the conference.
Heckscher opines that this was a missed opportunity, even though the Congressional majority had changed. In France he was without the usual control over his message through the media; in fact, the French initiated an aggressive propaganda campaign in the midst of the Conference to affect its outcome.
After his visit home, and while en route back to France, Wilson suffered an illness; the ensuing months brought a decline in health and in power and prestige.
On arrival, it was immediately clear the conference had struggled in his absence—Col. Wilson very reluctantly accepted these amendments, explaining why he later was more inflexible in the Senate treaty negotiations.
Though his symptoms receded within a couple of days, those around him noticed a distinct, lasting deterioration. Wilson was indifferent to the issue, but acceded to strong opposition from Australia and Britain.
For his peace-making efforts, Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. There can seldom have been a statesman of the first rank more incompetent than the President in the agilities of the council chamber.
The chances were less than favorable for ratification of the treaty by a two-thirds vote of the Republican Senate. Public opinion was mixed, with intense opposition from most Republicans, Germans, and Irish Catholic Democrats.
In numerous meetings with Senators, Wilson discovered opposition had hardened. Despite his weakened physical condition Wilson decided to barnstorm the Western states, scheduling 29 major speeches and many short ones to rally support.
She attempted an intolerable thing, and she must be made to pay for the attempt. Wilson had a series of debilitating strokes and had to cut short his trip on September 26, He became an invalid in the White House, closely monitored by his wife, who insulated him from negative news and downplayed for him the gravity of his condition.
It proved possible to build a majority for the treaty in the Senate, but the two-thirds coalition needed to ratify was insurmountable.
The largest bloc—Lodge and the Republicans—wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which empowered the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress.
Finally, a bipartisan group of 13 " irreconcilables " opposed a treaty in any form. A plan to form a commission for the purpose was abandoned in the face of Republican control of the Senate, which complicated the appointment of commission members.
Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers deeply in debt after they purchased new land.
There were social tensions as veterans tried to find jobs, and existing workers struggled to protect their jobs, as well as to gain better wages and conditions.
Major strikes in the steel, coal, and meatpacking industries disrupted the economy in As the election of approached, Wilson momentarily imagined that a deadlocked Democratic convention might nominate him for a third term with a campaign focused on the League of Nations.
No one around the President adequately clarified for him that he was too incapacitated, had insufficient support, and that the League defeat was irreversible.
Wilson frequently intervened in Latin American affairs, saying in Additionally, American troops in Haiti—under the command of the federal government—forced the Haitian legislature to elect as president a pro-Western candidate who was favored by Wilson though less popular among the Haitian citizenry.
The occupation lasted until , and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance. After Russia left World War I following the Bolshevik Revolution of , the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government.
Though specifically instructed not to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. Revolutionaries in Russia resented the United States intrusion.
Robert Maddox wrote, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society.
In , Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way.
Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and France. In May , Wilson sent a long-deferred proposal to Congress to have the U.
Hovannisian states that Wilson "made all the wrong arguments" for the mandate and focused less on the immediate policy than on how history would judge his actions: In Pueblo, Colorado , on September 25, , he collapsed and never fully recovered.
On October 2, , he suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, along with blindness in his left eye and partial vision in his right eye.
His wife Edith and his aide Joe Tumulty were said to have helped a journalist, Louis Seibold , present a false account of an interview with the President.
He was insulated by his wife, who selected matters for his attention and delegated others to his cabinet. Wilson temporarily resumed a perfunctory attendance at cabinet meetings.
No one close to him, including his wife, his physician, or personal assistant, was willing to admit he was unable to perform the duties of the presidency.
Kennedy had been left in a permanent vegetative state on account of his brain injuries, the 25th Amendment was ratified in to allow the voluntary or forcible replacement of an unable or unwilling incumbent.
Prohibition developed as an unstoppable reform during the war, but Wilson played a minor role in its passage. By January 16, , the Eighteenth Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states it needed.
Wilson felt Prohibition was unenforceable, but his veto of the Volstead Act was overridden by Congress. But, the consumption of alcohol was never prohibited, and individuals could maintain a private stock that existed before Prohibition went into effect.
Wilson moved his private supply of alcoholic beverages to the wine cellar of his Washington residence after his term of office ended.
Speakeasies thrived in cities, towns and rural areas. The white South was the main center of opposition—only Arkansas allowed women voting rights.
Wilson did keep in close touch with the much larger and more moderate suffragists of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
He continued to hold off until he was sure the Democratic Party in the North was supportive; the referendum in New York State in favor of suffrage proved decisive for him and he now came out strongly in support of national suffrage in a January speech to Congress.
Applauding the vitality of women during the First World War, he asked Congress, "We have made partners of the women in this war Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?
The most important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. After the end of his second term in , Wilson and his wife moved from the White House to an elegant town house in the Embassy Row Kalorama section of Washington, D.
Wilson was one of only two U. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt was the first to have served as president of the American Historical Association. Wilson experienced more success with his return to writing, and he published short works on the international impact of the American Revolution and the rise of totalitarianism.
He also campaigned for Democratic candidates in the elections , and he hinted to friends that he might pursue a third term in the presidential election.
On November 10, , Wilson made a short Armistice Day radio speech from the library of his home, his last national address. The following day he spoke briefly from the front steps to more than 20, well wishers gathered outside the house.
On February 3, , Wilson died at home of a stroke and other heart-related problems at age Wilson left the home and much of the contents to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband.
The rest he left to Edith as a life estate with the provision that at her death, his daughters would divide the estate among themselves.
Wilson was the first Southerner to be elected president since Zachary Taylor in While president of Princeton University , Wilson had discouraged blacks from applying for admission, preferring to keep the peace among white students and alumni.
But in accord with military policy from the Civil War through the Second World War, they segregated them into all-black units with white officers, and kept the great majority out of combat.
Du Bois —a leader of the NAACP who had campaigned for Wilson believing he was a "liberal southerner"—was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve.
The film, while revolutionary in its cinematic technique, glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed blacks as uncouth and uncivilized.
In the villages the Negroes were the office holders, men who knew none of the uses of authority, except its insolences", another claiming that Congressional leaders of that time wanted to "put the white South under the heel of the black South", and a third suggesting that the Klan grew out of "the white men of the South being aroused by a mere instinct of self-preservation".
After seeing the film, Wilson felt betrayed by Dixon, and did not like or endorse the film. Wilson tried to stop its showing during the World War.
In addition, photographs became required for all new federal job applicants, allowing racial discrimination in the merit-based career civil service.
When a delegation of black professionals from the National Independent Political League, led by newspaper editor William Monroe Trotter , protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen", explained he was trying to "reduce friction," and that he "sincerely believe[d] it to be in their interest".
Trotter countered by arguing that it was "untenable Wilson rebuked him, stating that if the League wanted to meet with him again, "it must have another spokesman.
Your manner offends me". Trotter was ordered to leave the White House. Employees who were downgraded were transferred to the dead letter office , where they did not interact with the public.
Although Villard subsequently corresponded with and met with Wilson about the issue, no change in policy was forthcoming.
The largest denomination of U. The college has placed a marker on the building, renamed Woodrow Wilson Hall, commemorating the home.
It was declared a National Historic Landmark in In , Darryl F. Zanuck of 20th Century Fox produced a film titled Wilson. Post Office issued the first postage stamp honoring the late president.
Woodrow Wilson was also an accomplished author and scholar, having written numerous books and essays. Wilson tips his hat as he exits the White House on his way to a parade along Pennsylvania Avenue From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Woodrow wilson. For other people named Woodrow Wilson, see Woodrow Wilson disambiguation. Daughters Jessie and Margaret.
William Jennings Bryan shifted his support from Clark to Wilson and ushered in the nomination. Presidency of Woodrow Wilson.
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Between Crescent and Sickle, Partition and Sovietization. University of California Press. Timeline for Hypertension Treatment History , accessed September 14, During his presidency, he had repeated episodes of unexplained arm and hand weakness, and his retinal arteries were said to be abnormal on fundoscopic examination.
He developed severe headaches, diplopia double vision , and evanescent weakness of the left arm and leg. In retrospect, physicians have said that those problems likely represented the effects of cerebral transient ischemic attacks.
Weinstein EA, Woodrow Wilson: The Year of the Six Presidents. Johns Hopkins University Press, Presidential Disability New York: Would Wilson Condone Speakeasies?
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Archived from the original on November 25, Real Life at the White House , p. Archived from the original on May 5, The Journal of Negro History.
A Theory of Oppression. John Milton Cooper Jr. Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace. Longmans, Green, and Company. Cooke, The All-Americans at War: Retrieved June 1, The New Freedom 2: Retrieved 10 November New Jersey Hall of Fame.
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Woodrow Wilson and the World He Made. Wilson and the Peacemakers: World Statesman Clements, Kendrick A. Saudiyah, Barzalla Bridge, Srinagar, Kashmir: The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.
To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, — standard political history of the era online Saunders, Robert M.
Beliefs and Behavior Tucker, Robert W. Woodrow Wilson and the Great War: Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas.
XVII 3, Spring issue. The Princeton University Library Chronicle. Primary sources August Heckscher , ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson.
Archived from the original on November 1, Woodrow Wilson as I Know Him. Wilson, Edith Bolling Why We Are at War.
Articles related to Woodrow Wilson. Presidents of the United States. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.
The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.
Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.
Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.
The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.
Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family. As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.
Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.
Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.
Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.
Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.
Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.
As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.
Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.
Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.
There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.
A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.
Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.
These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.
For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.
Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green.
Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.
For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.
United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.
Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.
Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.
Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.
Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 9, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".
Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.
Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. Retrieved January 20, Founding the American Presidency. The Making of the American Constitution.
Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required.
Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.
The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.
By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.
Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.
Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.
He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.
Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration.
Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U. United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R.
Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.
The prosecutor charged that Mr. Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.
Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.
In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds  and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.
Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege. Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.
But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, Legal experts discuss the implications.
Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.
The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet.
But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.
Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.
Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.
Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch". Ginsberg and Crenson unite". Retrieved September 21, The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom".
The National Constitution Center. Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution.
The Annenberg Public Policy Center. CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.
Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed. Office of the Historian, U.
Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath". Heritage Guide to the Constitution.
Before and After the Twenty-Fifth Amendment". Fordham University School of Law. Retrieved December 13, The American Presidency Project [online].
University of California hosted. Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts". Retrieved January 2, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved July 31, Dollar Amount, to Present".
Archived from the original on December 14, White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, Air Force aircraft carrying the president will use the call sign "Air Force One.
Secret Service to unveil new presidential limo". Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 16, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 18, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved January 10, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on August 23, United States Secret Service.
Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved March 11, Retrieved April 3, Balogh, Brian and Bruce J.
Recapturing the Oval Office: Bumiller, Elisabeth January The Complete Book of Presidential Trivia. A Reference History 3rd ed.
Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House. University of Helsinki, Primary sources Waldman, Michael — Stephanopoulos, George.
Interview with Joseph G. Peschek and William Grover, authors of The Unsustainable Presidency , a book offering an analysis of the role the US President plays in economics and politics.
President of the United States. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A.
Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B.